telegram.ext.Application

class telegram.ext.Application(*, bot, update_queue, updater, job_queue, concurrent_updates, persistence, context_types, post_init, post_shutdown, post_stop)[source]

Bases: typing.Generic, AbstractAsyncContextManager

This class dispatches all kinds of updates to its registered handlers, and is the entry point to a PTB application.

Tip

This class may not be initialized directly. Use telegram.ext.ApplicationBuilder or builder() (for convenience).

Instances of this class can be used as asyncio context managers, where

async with application:
    # code

is roughly equivalent to

try:
    await application.initialize()
    # code
finally:
    await application.shutdown()

Examples

Echo Bot

Changed in version 20.0:

bot[source]

The bot object that should be passed to the handlers.

Type

telegram.Bot

update_queue[source]

The synchronized queue that will contain the updates.

Type

asyncio.Queue

updater[source]

Optional. The updater used by this application.

Type

telegram.ext.Updater

chat_data[source]

A dictionary handlers can use to store data for the chat. For each integer chat id, the corresponding value of this mapping is available as telegram.ext.CallbackContext.chat_data in handler callbacks for updates from that chat.

Changed in version 20.0: chat_data is now read-only. Note that the values of the mapping are still mutable, i.e. editing context.chat_data within a handler callback is possible (and encouraged), but editing the mapping application.chat_data itself is not.

Tip

  • Manually modifying chat_data is almost never needed and unadvisable.

  • Entries are never deleted automatically from this mapping. If you want to delete the data associated with a specific chat, e.g. if the bot got removed from that chat, please use drop_chat_data().

Type

types.MappingProxyType

user_data[source]

A dictionary handlers can use to store data for the user. For each integer user id, the corresponding value of this mapping is available as telegram.ext.CallbackContext.user_data in handler callbacks for updates from that user.

Changed in version 20.0: user_data is now read-only. Note that the values of the mapping are still mutable, i.e. editing context.user_data within a handler callback is possible (and encouraged), but editing the mapping application.user_data itself is not.

Tip

  • Manually modifying user_data is almost never needed and unadvisable.

  • Entries are never deleted automatically from this mapping. If you want to delete the data associated with a specific user, e.g. if that user blocked the bot, please use drop_user_data().

Type

types.MappingProxyType

bot_data[source]

A dictionary handlers can use to store data for the bot.

Type

dict

persistence[source]

The persistence class to store data that should be persistent over restarts.

Type

telegram.ext.BasePersistence

handlers[source]

A dictionary mapping each handler group to the list of handlers registered to that group.

Type

Dict[int, List[telegram.ext.BaseHandler]]

error_handlers[source]

A dictionary where the keys are error handlers and the values indicate whether they are to be run blocking.

Type

Dict[coroutine function, bool]

context_types[source]

Specifies the types used by this dispatcher for the context argument of handler and job callbacks.

Type

telegram.ext.ContextTypes

post_init[source]

Optional. A callback that will be executed by Application.run_polling() and Application.run_webhook() after initializing the application via initialize().

Type

coroutine function

post_shutdown[source]

Optional. A callback that will be executed by Application.run_polling() and Application.run_webhook() after shutting down the application via shutdown().

Type

coroutine function

post_stop[source]

Optional. A callback that will be executed by Application.run_polling() and Application.run_webhook() after stopping the application via stop().

New in version 20.1.

Type

coroutine function

add_error_handler(callback, block=True)[source]

Registers an error handler in the Application. This handler will receive every error which happens in your bot. See the docs of process_error() for more details on how errors are handled.

Note

Attempts to add the same callback multiple times will be ignored.

Examples

Errorhandler Bot

Parameters
  • callback (coroutine function) –

    The callback function for this error handler. Will be called when an error is raised. Callback signature:

    async def callback(update: Optional[object], context: CallbackContext)
    

    The error that happened will be present in telegram.ext.CallbackContext.error.

  • block (bool, optional) – Determines whether the return value of the callback should be awaited before processing the next error handler in process_error(). Defaults to True.

add_handler(handler, group=0)[source]

Register a handler.

TL;DR: Order and priority counts. 0 or 1 handlers per group will be used. End handling of update with telegram.ext.ApplicationHandlerStop.

A handler must be an instance of a subclass of telegram.ext.BaseHandler. All handlers are organized in groups with a numeric value. The default group is 0. All groups will be evaluated for handling an update, but only 0 or 1 handler per group will be used. If telegram.ext.ApplicationHandlerStop is raised from one of the handlers, no further handlers (regardless of the group) will be called.

The priority/order of handlers is determined as follows:

  • Priority of the group (lower group number == higher priority)

  • The first handler in a group which can handle an update (see telegram.ext.BaseHandler.check_update) will be used. Other handlers from the group will not be used. The order in which handlers were added to the group defines the priority.

Warning

Adding persistent telegram.ext.ConversationHandler after the application has been initialized is discouraged. This is because the persisted conversation states need to be loaded into memory while the application is already processing updates, which might lead to race conditions and undesired behavior. In particular, current conversation states may be overridden by the loaded data.

Parameters
add_handlers(handlers, group=0)[source]

Registers multiple handlers at once. The order of the handlers in the passed sequence(s) matters. See add_handler() for details.

New in version 20.0.

Parameters

Example:

app.add_handlers(handlers={
    -1: [MessageHandler(...)],
    1: [CallbackQueryHandler(...), CommandHandler(...)]
}
static builder()[source]

Convenience method. Returns a new telegram.ext.ApplicationBuilder.

New in version 20.0.

property concurrent_updates[source]

The number of concurrent updates that will be processed in parallel. A value of 0 indicates updates are not being processed concurrently.

See also

Concurrency

Type

int

create_task(coroutine, update=None)[source]

Thin wrapper around asyncio.create_task() that handles exceptions raised by the coroutine with process_error().

Note

  • If coroutine raises an exception, it will be set on the task created by this method even though it’s handled by process_error().

  • If the application is currently running, tasks created by this method will be awaited with stop().

See also

Concurrency

Parameters
Returns

The created task.

Return type

asyncio.Task

drop_chat_data(chat_id)[source]

Drops the corresponding entry from the chat_data. Will also be deleted from the persistence on the next run of update_persistence(), if applicable.

Warning

When using concurrent_updates or the job_queue, process_update() or telegram.ext.Job.run() may re-create this entry due to the asynchronous nature of these features. Please make sure that your program can avoid or handle such situations.

New in version 20.0.

Parameters

chat_id (int) – The chat id to delete. The entry will be deleted even if it is not empty.

drop_user_data(user_id)[source]

Drops the corresponding entry from the user_data. Will also be deleted from the persistence on the next run of update_persistence(), if applicable.

Warning

When using concurrent_updates or the job_queue, process_update() or telegram.ext.Job.run() may re-create this entry due to the asynchronous nature of these features. Please make sure that your program can avoid or handle such situations.

New in version 20.0.

Parameters

user_id (int) – The user id to delete. The entry will be deleted even if it is not empty.

async initialize()[source]

Initializes the Application by initializing:

Does not call post_init - that is only done by run_polling() and run_webhook().

See also

shutdown()

property job_queue[source]
The JobQueue used by the

telegram.ext.Application.

See also

Job Queue

Type

telegram.ext.JobQueue

migrate_chat_data(message=None, old_chat_id=None, new_chat_id=None)[source]

Moves the contents of chat_data at key old_chat_id to the key new_chat_id. Also marks the entries to be updated accordingly in the next run of update_persistence().

Warning

Warning

When using concurrent_updates or the job_queue, process_update() or telegram.ext.Job.run() may re-create the old entry due to the asynchronous nature of these features. Please make sure that your program can avoid or handle such situations.

Parameters
Raises

ValueError – Raised if the input is invalid.

async process_error(update, error, job=None, coroutine=None)[source]

Processes an error by passing it to all error handlers registered with add_error_handler(). If one of the error handlers raises telegram.ext.ApplicationHandlerStop, the error will not be handled by other error handlers. Raising telegram.ext.ApplicationHandlerStop also stops processing of the update when this method is called by process_update(), i.e. no further handlers (even in other groups) will handle the update. All other exceptions raised by an error handler will just be logged.

Changed in version 20.0:

Parameters
Returns

True, if one of the error handlers raised telegram.ext.ApplicationHandlerStop. False, otherwise.

Return type

bool

async process_update(update)[source]

Processes a single update and marks the update to be updated by the persistence later. Exceptions raised by handler callbacks will be processed by process_update().

See also

Concurrency

Changed in version 20.0: Persistence is now updated in an interval set by telegram.ext.BasePersistence.update_interval.

Parameters

update (telegram.Update | object | telegram.error.TelegramError) – The update to process.

Raises

RuntimeError – If the application was not initialized.

remove_error_handler(callback)[source]

Removes an error handler.

Parameters

callback (coroutine function) – The error handler to remove.

remove_handler(handler, group=0)[source]

Remove a handler from the specified group.

Parameters
run_polling(poll_interval=0.0, timeout=10, bootstrap_retries=-1, read_timeout=2, write_timeout=None, connect_timeout=None, pool_timeout=None, allowed_updates=None, drop_pending_updates=None, close_loop=True, stop_signals=None)[source]

Convenience method that takes care of initializing and starting the app, polling updates from Telegram using telegram.ext.Updater.start_polling() and a graceful shutdown of the app on exit.

The app will shut down when KeyboardInterrupt or SystemExit is raised. On unix, the app will also shut down on receiving the signals specified by stop_signals.

The order of execution by run_polling is roughly as follows:

Tip

When combining python-telegram-bot with other asyncio based frameworks, using this method is likely not the best choice, as it blocks the event loop until it receives a stop signal as described above. Instead, you can manually call the methods listed below to start and shut down the application and the updater. Keeping the event loop running and listening for a stop signal is then up to you.

Parameters
Raises

RuntimeError – If the Application does not have an telegram.ext.Updater.

run_webhook(listen='127.0.0.1', port=80, url_path='', cert=None, key=None, bootstrap_retries=0, webhook_url=None, allowed_updates=None, drop_pending_updates=None, ip_address=None, max_connections=40, close_loop=True, stop_signals=None, secret_token=None)[source]

Convenience method that takes care of initializing and starting the app, listening for updates from Telegram using telegram.ext.Updater.start_webhook() and a graceful shutdown of the app on exit.

The app will shut down when KeyboardInterrupt or SystemExit is raised. On unix, the app will also shut down on receiving the signals specified by stop_signals.

If cert and key are not provided, the webhook will be started directly on http://listen:port/url_path, so SSL can be handled by another application. Else, the webhook will be started on https://listen:port/url_path. Also calls telegram.Bot.set_webhook() as required.

The order of execution by run_webhook is roughly as follows:

Important

If you want to use this method, you must install PTB with the optional requirement webhooks, i.e.

pip install python-telegram-bot[webhooks]

Tip

When combining python-telegram-bot with other asyncio based frameworks, using this method is likely not the best choice, as it blocks the event loop until it receives a stop signal as described above. Instead, you can manually call the methods listed below to start and shut down the application and the updater. Keeping the event loop running and listening for a stop signal is then up to you.

Parameters
property running[source]

Indicates if this application is running.

See also

start(), stop()

Type

bool

async shutdown()[source]

Shuts down the Application by shutting down:

Does not call post_shutdown - that is only done by run_polling() and run_webhook().

See also

initialize()

Raises

RuntimeError – If the application is still running.

async start()[source]

Starts

Note

This does not start fetching updates from Telegram. To fetch updates, you need to either start updater manually or use one of run_polling() or run_webhook().

Tip

When using a custom logic for startup and shutdown of the application, eventual cancellation of pending tasks should happen only after stop() has been called in order to ensure that the tasks mentioned above are not cancelled prematurely.

See also

stop()

Raises

RuntimeError – If the application is already running or was not initialized.

async stop()[source]

Stops the process after processing any pending updates or tasks created by create_task(). Also stops job_queue, if set. Finally, calls update_persistence() and BasePersistence.flush() on persistence, if set.

Warning

Once this method is called, no more updates will be fetched from update_queue, even if it’s not empty.

See also

start()

Note

Raises

RuntimeError – If the application is not running.

async update_persistence()[source]

Updates user_data, chat_data, bot_data in persistence along with callback_data_cache and the conversation states of any persistent ConversationHandler registered for this application.

For user_data, chat_data, only entries used since the last run of this method are updated.

Tip

This method will be called in regular intervals by the application. There is usually no need to call it manually.

Note

Any data is deep copied with copy.deepcopy() before handing it over to the persistence in order to avoid race conditions, so all persisted data must be copyable.